Genesis 6:13-22

In our last study we looked at the reasons for Noah’s flood, and what the earth was like in those days. In this study I want you to consider the evidence that the flood actually occurred by looking at what archeologists have found around the globe. In addition, I want you to examine the ark itself, and determine if it was really possible to get all those animals on this boat. God declared in Genesis 6:13-22, And God said to Noah, ‘The end of all flesh has come before Me, for the earth is filled with violence through them; and behold, I will destroy them with the earth. Make yourself an ark of gopherwood; make rooms in the ark, and cover it inside and outside with pitch. And this is how you shall make it: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, its width fifty cubits, and its height thirty cubits. You shall make a window for the ark, and you shall finish it to a cubit from above; and set the door of the ark in its side. You shall make it with lower, second, and third decks. And behold, I Myself am bringing floodwaters on the earth, to destroy from under heaven all flesh in which is the breath of life; everything that is on the earth shall die. But I will establish My covenant with you; and you shall go into the ark--you, your sons, your wife, and your sons’ wives with you. And of every living thing of all flesh you shall bring two of every sort into the ark, to keep them alive with you; they shall be male and female. Of the birds after their kind, of animals after their kind, and of every creeping thing of the earth after its kind, two of every kind will come to you to keep them alive. And you shall take for yourself of all food that is eaten, and you shall gather it to yourself; and it shall be food for you and for them.’ Thus Noah did; according to all that God commanded him, so he did.”

I love that this passage of Scripture ends with the acknowledgment that Noah chose to be obedient to do exactly what God commanded him to do. This is what separated Noah and his family from the entire rest of the world. This is also what separates you and me from the rest of this world today. The Lord has called each of us to Himself so that we might obey and follow Him. This is our calling before God! One day each of us will give an account to God whether or not we have actually done what He has called us to do. Paul warned all believers, But why do you judge your brother? Or why do you show contempt for your brother? For we shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ. For it is written: ‘As I live, says the LORD, every knee shall bow to Me, and every tongue shall confess to God.’ So then each of us shall give account of himself to God” (Rom. 14:10-12). This is an important truth to remember as we come to the end of this age.
What is the evidence for the flood?

Many times, when you share your faith with others and the topic of Noah’s flood comes up people ask, “How can you be sure that the flood actually occurred on the earth? Isn’t that just a story in the Bible to scare you?” At this moment you must have an answer for them that includes practical evidence for your faith. The Apostle Peter said, “Always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a reason for the hope that is in you, with meekness and fear” (1 Peter 3:15). Therefore, do you have scientific and historical evidence that you can point to that can prove the veracity of the testimony of Scripture? If you can’t, here is some of the evidence you should know. Remember, this is only a small portion of the evidence for the flood. I hope that this study will motivate you to do your own research on this topic.

1. The testimony of Jesus.

I think the first and the most powerful and important evidence for the flood is simply the testimony of Jesus. Jesus referred to the flood of Noah several times during His ministry. He warned, “But of that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, but My Father only. But as the days of Noah were, so also will the coming of the Son of Man be. For as in the days before the flood, they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah entered the ark, and did not know until the flood came and took them all away, so also will the coming of the Son of Man be. Then two men will be in the field: one will be taken and the other left. Two women will be grinding at the mill: one will be taken and the other left. Watch therefore, for you do not know what hour your Lord is coming” (Matt. 24:36-42). In addition, Jesus warned His followers again at another time, “And as it was in the days of Noah, so it will be also in the days of the Son of Man: They ate, they drank, they married wives, they were given in marriage, until the day that Noah entered the ark, and the flood came and destroyed them all. Likewise as it was also in the days of Lot: They ate, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they built; but on the day that Lot went out of Sodom it rained fire and brimstone from heaven and destroyed them all. Even so will it be in the day when the Son of Man is revealed” (Luke 17:26-30). These statements make it clear that Jesus believed in the historical accuracy of the flood and the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. Either you believe the testimony of Jesus, or you reject it. But, if you can’t believe Jesus, who can you believe? The statements made in our text here in Genesis reveal that this flood was a direct judgment of God upon this world. But the testimony of Jesus is not our only evidence.

2. Flood legends from around the world

One piece of evidence that I believe is very powerful is the fact of the flood legends in almost every culture around the world. Researchers have cataloged over 300 legends from every continent in the world. How could this be with all these people groups being separated by vast oceans and continents? However, this evidence is exactly what you should see, especially after the dispersion of the people from the Tower of Babel. Each family and language group would have carried the account of the flood with them to their new homes. Though these many stories of the flood differ greatly, and have probably morphed over time, they all still recount the basic fact of the event of a flood, a large boat, and the people who were saved from the judgment of God. These stories of the flood are found in the historical writings of Assyria, Babylon, Asia Minor, China, India, Persia, and even the Cherokee Indian people here in the United States. I believe this evidence gives strong confirmation that all these people groups originated from one family, that was preserved through this cataclysm of the flood. If you would like to read more on this topic, check out these links: or

3. Sedimentary rock covers most of the earth’s crust

Another powerful evidence is that over 70% of the entire earth’s crust consists of what is called sedimentary rock. The rest of the earth’s surface consists of volcanic, igneous, or metamorphic rock. Why is this an important fact? It’s important because sedimentary rock is laid down by moving water, layer by layer. Sedimentary rock is simply sediment or silt which is material moved by water. One leading scientific journal defines sedimentary rock in this manner, “Sedimentary rock was originally formed, in almost all cases under water, usually by deposition after transportation by water, with various sources. These sources would be rivers or floods of any kind. Sedimentary rocks are made up of pieces of rock, or other material, which have existed somewhere else, and have been eroded, or dissolved, and redeposited in another location.” To read more on this topic see: Therefore, if 70% of the earth’s crust is sedimentary rock, then 70% of the earth’s crust has been moved by water and redeposited from another place. This is exactly what you should find if there was a global flood as described here in the Bible.

4. Mt. Everest contains sedimentary rock that also includes marine fossils.

One of the most interesting facts is that sedimentary rock is visible near the top of Mount Everest. Scientists have also found fossils of marine creatures at these high elevations. See the evidence in this video found at: The obvious question is, how could this be? The only answer is that Mount Everest was at one time under water. This is how the sedimentary rock would have been formed, and the marine animals would have been fossilized. You must remember that during the flood the Scripture tells us that the entire topography of the earth’s surface was changed. The Psalmist declared, “The mountains rose; the valleys sank down to the place which You established for them” (Ps. 104:8 - NAS). These are the very facts you should see if there was a global flood.


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5. Mount Ararat was once submerged by water

Similar to Mount Everest is the evidence of Mount Ararat. The twin mountains of Ararat sit right next to the Iranian-Turkish border. The Bible declares that this is where the Ark came to rest after the flood receded. The picture below I personally took in 1970 while traveling through this area.


The larger mountain on the left is 16,854 feet high, and the smaller peak is 12,782 feet high.   How can you be sure that these mountains were once underwater? Because of the presence of pillow lava formed on these mountains. According to US geological society, pillow lava is formed when basalts erupt under water. Consequently, when volcanic eruptions take place underwater, they cool very quickly, and pillow lava is formed. If pillow lava is found at the 10,000 to 12,000-foot level of Mount Ararat, this means that this mountain was once underwater. How could that be? This fact could only occur because of a global flood. See below for a picture of this pillow lava.

Below is the geologic description of Mount Ararat by Clifford L. Burdick.

“This article presents a geologic survey of the observations made during the 1966 expedition to Mt Ararat sponsored by the Archaeological Research Foundation (ARF) of New York. Eastern Turkey consists of a relatively barren undeveloped area. Tectonically it is very active, and unstable structurally. The region has been folded, faulted, and intruded with basic types of volcanic rock, such as andesite and basalt. Mt. Ararat is 17,000 feet high, and at its greatest height perhaps measured nearer 20,000 feet. Evidently the cover rocks were Paleozoic and Mesozoic limestone, and in places like Mt. Ararat were domed up by rising magma which burst through channels along fault lines. During the Flood period at least three blankets of basaltic or andesitic lava were extruded over the original Ararat which may have only been about 10,000 to 12,000 feet high originally. Much of the lava is in rounded blocks called pillow lava, having a conchoidal appearance indicating it flowed out from the fractures while under water. After subsidence of the floodwaters, almost the whole northeast side of the mountain blew up forming the Ahora Gulch. Rock fragments and ash from this eruption cover about 100 square miles. Greater Ararat is covered with an ice cap down to the 14,000-foot level. This cap is hundreds of feet thick and divides into 12 "fingers" or glaciers. An analysis of five rock samples is given and also a list of fossils found by Abich.”

6. The enormous number of fossils found around the world at the highest elevations

One of the most convincing pieces of evidence of a global flood are the multitude of sites around the world where you find enormous numbers of fossils buried in the ground. How are fossils formed? Here is an explanation given by Dr.  Henry Morris, in “The Genesis Record.” He wrote, “Fossilization requires rapid burial of a plant or animal. The massive numbers of fossils worldwide are clear evidence of a quick massive burial during a cataclysm that killed these animals. The fossils give evidence that these animals were killed suddenly.” He adds, “The massive worldwide coal deposits also lend further proof to the sudden destruction of immense primordial forests.” He explains that, “Coal is formed when trees, plants, roots, bark, or any vegetation are buried by water and sediment… The burial of this vegetation by sediment causes compaction, which squeezes out the water, and over time, through the chemical processes of decay, coal is formed. Coal is actually fossilized, decayed vegetation or peat,” which is found all around the world.

Do you realize that there have been hundreds of millions of fossils that have been found all over the world? This immense number of the fossils around the world is clear evidence of this great cataclysm. Fossils have been found in every part of the world. Below is a fossilized fish found in the Himalayan mountains hundreds of miles from the nearest ocean.


Below are giant fossilized clams found from the 9,000 to 13,000-foot level in the Andes Mountains.  


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Then you have huge graveyards of plants and animals all mixed together in enormous burial grounds. One example are the coal fields of Montceau-les-Mines near Autun in France. They have found nearly 300 species of plants, and 16 classes of animals that represent 30 species. What could explain the sea, land, and lake creatures that have been found buried together in one massive deposit? This find is obviously consistent with a global flood where all these animals and plants are buried together and compacted by sediment to form fossils. See this link for further reading on this topic.

Scientists have found these huge fossilized graveyards all over the world on every single continent. Sometimes these graveyards are found on very high plateaus, where all of these animals obviously were trying to escape the rising waters of Noah’s flood.

Let me give you a couple of examples of these finds by paleontologists. First, in Agate Springs, Nebraska there is a fossil graveyard that contains over 9,000 animals buried together. They have found hundreds of rhinos, three-toed horses, camels, giant wild boars, birds, plants, trees, sea shells, and fish all mixed together.


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Another example is the Ashley Phosphate Beds in South Carolina that cover roughly a 40-square mile area. This example is truly amazing because in this layer of sediment are mixed remains of human bones together with land and sea animals, dinosaurs, plesiosaurs, whales, sharks, rhinos, horses, mastodons, mammoths, porpoises, elephants, deer, pigs, dogs, and sheep. This catalogue of fossils from the phosphate beds was given in the records of Major Edward Willis who displayed them at multiple expositions (Willis, “Fossils and Phosphate Specimens,” 1881.) In addition, Professor F.S. Holmes (paleontologist and curator of the College of Charleston’s Natural History Museum) described the fossil graveyard in his report to the Academy of Natural Sciences. He wrote, “Remains of the hog, the horse and other animals of recent date, together with human bones mingled with the bones of the mastodon and extinct gigantic lizards.”   

If you would like to watch a short YouTube presentation on this enormous graveyard, see this link.

These enormous graveyards are also found in Tanzania, Belgium and Mongolia which reveals there was at one time a massive catastrophe that killed vast populations and trapped them in a fossil graveyard of sediments and debris. This is exactly what you would expect to see if there truly was a global flood as recorded in Genesis. These are examples that should give you real evidence to base your faith upon that the testimony that God’s Word is true, and that there was a great worldwide flood in the days of Noah.

Could the ark have held all of the basic species of animals in the world?

One of the most important questions that skeptics ask is, “Could the ark have held all of the basic species of animals in the world, and if it could have held all these species of animals, how did Noah and his sons find all of them and get them into the Ark?” These are great questions and you want to be able to answer them.

How did Noah get all these animals into the ark?

The answer is simple. Noah didn’t go out into the surrounding land and have to find all these animals. Why? Because God brought them to him. Notice in Genesis 6:19-20 God declared, “And of every living thing of all flesh you shall bring two of every sort into the ark, to keep them alive with you; they shall be male and female. Of the birds after their kind, of animals after their kind, and of every creeping thing of the earth after its kind, two of every kind will come to you to keep them alive.” Note that having the animals all come to Noah would have been no problem for the Creator of these animals. It all depends on how big your God is that you believe in. If He created all things by speaking them into existence, then this would be easy for Him to do, because He is a miracle working God. If God can cause multitudes of animal species to migrate back and forth from one place on the globe to another, then this would have been easy for God to direct these animals to Noah.

Could the ark hold two of every living thing?

The answer to this question is also easy to determine if you do the math given to us in the Scripture. God declared, “The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the width fifty cubits, and the height thirty cubits. You shall make a window for the ark, and you shall finish it to a cubit from above; and set the door of the ark in its side. You shall make it with lower, second, and third decks” (Gen. 6:15-16). The first question you must answer is, how big is a cubit? There are different sizes for a cubit depending on the country you consider. An Egyptian cubit was different from the Babylonian cubit, which was also different from a Hebrew cubit. These cubit lengths ranged from 18 to 24 inches long. Most scholars today believe the royal Hebrew cubit was somewhere between 19.8 and 20.6 inches long. For our calculations let’s take the smallest number of 18 inches per cubit. Therefore, if you take an 18-inch cubit, the size of the Ark would have been 300 by 50 by 30 cubits, or 450 feet long, by 75 feet wide, and 45 feet high. 450 feet long is about 1-1/2 football fields in length, so this was a very large boat. If you add three decks, of 33,750 square feet per deck you have a total of 101,250 square feet. This would equal 1,518,750 cubic feet of space, which equates to 569 modern railroad boxcars. Have you ever seen a train with a hundred rail cars on it? That is a long train. Think of a train 5 ½ times that size! That would be an extremely long train. The average double decker train car to carry stock can hold 240 sheep. The ark capacity then would be 569 boxcars, times 240 animals which means that the Ark could have held a total of 136,560 animals the size of the sheep. But there are many animals that were much smaller than sheep, such as the creeping things on the earth, and there would also have been some animals that would be much larger than a sheep. In addition, I don’t think that God would have sent fully mature elephants or giraffes to the ark. Most likely, He would have sent more youthful animals with longer life spans ahead of them for reproducing, or even possibly newly born animals. This is only my speculation.

Now we know that there are less than 18,000 species of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians living in the world today. If you doubled this number to 36,000 species, to allow for known and possibly unknown extinct land animals, which is being very generous, you can cancel skeptics arguments against these numbers that I have presented. Therefore, doubling this number of animals would bring the total number to 72,000 animals. If you add an additional 3,000 animals for the clean animals God commanded Noah to take for food, this would bring the total to 75,000 animals. This number is far less than the 136,560 animals that the ark could have contained. That means only 60% of the ark would have been filled, which would have left plenty of room for the provisions for Noah and for his family, provisions for the animals, and the water they would have needed to survive the duration of the flood. So, the ark could have easily contained all the basic species of animals that God commanded Noah to house within the Ark. These are the facts, and the numbers. If a cubit was larger than 18-inches it would have been far easier for Noah to accomplish his task. These are all of the reasons why you should have total confidence in what the Scripture has declared. So, when people laugh and mock that Noah’s Ark is a myth, and the flood is a myth, share with them these facts and proofs. If you would like to study more on this topic, go to the Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry website, or read “The Genesis Record” by Dr. Henry Morris. I believe that “The Genesis Record” by Dr. Henry Morris is probably the most definitive work on the book of Genesis that you could ever read. 

What good are all these facts?

Is there a reason why you need all these facts that I have just given to you? Yes! They reveal that Noah’s flood actually took place, and that the Ark could have held all of the animals that God sent to him. But, the ramifications of the truthfulness of this story are far reaching. Why do I say this? For these reasons: If the flood is true, then the Bible is true. If the Bible is true, then there really is a God who judged the world because of the sinful behavior of men. This means that God actually does hold men accountable for their actions. These facts should strengthen your faith in all the rest of what God has said in His Word. If God judged the world once, then there is also a judgment to come for every one of us as the Bible declares. We are told that we will stand before a righteous and holy God, and He will hold us all accountable for what we did with Jesus (Matt. 25:31-46). Did we believe and follow Him, or follow the example of the rest of the world as the entire population did in Noah’s day? This is a decision that is placed before each of us today.

These facts also reveal why evolutionists fight so vehemently against the evidence that I have given to you in this study. There is a monumental amount of evidence for the flood that your child will not be taught in school, or be found in his or her science text book. In fact, the evidence for the flood will be aggressively mocked by science teachers from middle school through college. Why? Because it refutes atheism, and proves the existence of an all-powerful Almighty God! This is the fundamental reason why this information is hidden from the students in our schools today. These facts have real ramifications for your life and children today. This is why you must teach these facts concerning the flood to your children, so they know they will be held accountable to God one day. This is a fundamental responsibility of every parent.

Always remember the most practical reason to know these facts. How should these facts change your behavior today? Notice what the Apostle Peter explained concerning the practical changes that should happen in your life today. He said, “The day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise, the elements will melt with fervent heat; both the earth and the works that are in it will be burned up” (2 Peter 3:10). Then Peter adds, “Therefore, since all these things will be dissolved what manner of persons ought you to be in holy conduct and godliness” (2 Peter 3:11). Notice he doesn’t say that the earth might be dissolved, no, he declares that all these things will be dissolved. Therefore, what manner of man or woman ought you to be? His warning is that you and I need to walk in holiness and godliness. This is the only way we will not perish in the judgment that is to come. Things are not going to get better; they are going to get worse and worse as we see that day approaching. Paul made this fact very clear when he wrote to Timothy and warned him, “Evil men and impostors will grow worse and worse, deceiving and being deceived. But you must continue in the things which you have learned and been assured of, knowing from whom you have learned them, and that from childhood you have known the Holy Scriptures, which are able to make you wise for salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus” (2 Tim. 3:13-15). May you also heed the wisdom that you have learned from God’s Holy Scriptures! There will not be another flood as in Noah’s life, but there will be a flood of evil and evil men who will grow worse and worse. If your heart is not set on following Him, with a heart filled with the power of His Spirit, and you are not committed to obeying Him, you will not stand against the evil that is coming. Prepare yourself while there is still time!